PCB has electrically conductive pathways called traces that connect electronic components to each other. Circuit boards are one of the most important inventions that heralded the onset of electronic technology.
Circuit boards greatly simplify the process of electrical wiring by replacing many components that once had to be wired through solder or cable with simpler and easier to assemble printed circuit boards. Circuit boards are made of many components and have themselves become complex and sophisticated with multi layers.
A PCB is found in nearly every type of electronic device. These plastic boards and their embedded components provide the basic technology for everything from computers and mobile phones to smart watches. The circuit connections on a PCB allow electrical current to be efficiently routed between the miniaturized components on the board, replacing larger devices and bulky wiring.
What are the types of PCB?
There are many different types of printed circuit boards made from different materials and manufacturing specifications for a broad range of applications. Below is a list of the common types of printed circuit boards.
What is Single-Layer PCB?
Single layer printed circuit boards are among some of the simplest to design and manufacture. These boards have a single layer of conductive material on only one side of a non-conductive substrate.
What is Double-Layers PCB?
Double-layers PCBs have one conductive layer on top of a non-conductive substrate and another conductive layer on the reverse side. The two conductive sides can be connected using plated holes in the substrate that connect to pads on both sides of the circuit board; these are called vias.
What is Multi-Layers PCB?
This term refers to a circuit board that has three or more conductive layers. The conductive layers are at the top and bottom, as well as at least one conductive layer sandwiched between non-conductive substrate.
How do PCBs work?
To understand electronic circuits, we need to briefly understand how they work. Everything that electricians know, all of their rules, is broken down to the four fundamental laws of charge transfer.
What are the working principles of PCB?
The working principle of the circuit board is to use the board-based insulating material to isolate the conductive layer of the copper foil on the surface so that the current flows in various components along the pre-designed route to complete work such as work, amplification, attenuation, modulation, demodulation, and encoding.
First and foremost is the principle of continuity – a flow of energy between two points.
Secondly, we have the principle of charge conservation – the total electric quantity is constant.
Thirdly, we have the principle of freedom of charge – electric charges can be added and removed from materials.
Lastly, we have the principle of energy transfer – electric charges can transfer energy.
What is the working process of PCB?
Any circuit is made up of three parts. There is a source of power, and from this source, there are two wires. Follow the wires, and you will come to a resistive load; this load is what we normally see circuits powering. In essence, a circuit is made up of conductors, which are either wire in the case of copper or copper and plastic in the case of a PCB, a load, and a switch. In addition, in a power circuit, there is also a switch.
The first law of electricity is the principle of continuity. Electricity follows the path of least resistance; if there is a single wire, there is no easier path for the electricity to take, say other than the path. This means that the electricity moves through the whole wire and leaves at the other end. This is called a ‘continuous’ or ‘fixed’ circuit.
In more complex circuits, there is more than one path for the electricity to move through, and this is where the laws of electricity become very important. It is possible to restrict the flow of electricity in any circuit so that only a specific amount is transferred.
The principle of conservation tells us the simple answer to this – the wire has to carry that amount for a continuous short circuit to be created. This is called ‘voltage division.’ We can also place impurities in the metal to act as resistors. This allows the voltage to pass, but only to a certain point, and when the impurities stop the electricity from reaching the end of the wire, it creates a ‘closed’ circuit. In a closed circuit, the current changes direction, but the voltage stays the same.
Circuits can be used to carry large amounts of power. The process of ‘dividing the voltage’ makes this safe, as only a portion of the power is acting through the wire at any given time. Also, if there are any breaks in the circuit, there is no power reaching the load. It is also important to note that in all types of circuits, there is a finite amount of current. This limits how long the circuit can be connected and circuits that are designed to be hard-wired have a maximum length that can be connected.
The last process is the generation of a closed-loop. This is called the principle of energy transfer, and it is a minor variation on the principle of continuity. If a loop of wire is formed correctly, the current will continuously flow through the loop. It is possible to convert energy to heat and other utilities – like in an electric toaster – so that the wire itself can retain a large amount of energy.
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