Development of SMT PCB Assembly Technology
The development of SMT PCB assembly technology is a short one, having come in the market during the 1960s. In the 1960s, when this technology came into light, only a few players in the industry took advantage of the possibilities that surface mount technology provided. It took another 20 years for SMT assembly technology to turn into a widely used operation across many industries.
During the late 80s and early 90s, the development of SMT PCB assembly technology increased with placement equipment beginning to automate the entire process of surface mounting. When it reached the year 2000s, PCB assembly technology saw the combination of several “pick” and “placement” machines into one highly heads that perform the entire placement procedures.
Advantages of SMT PCB Assembly
There are several benefits associated with the Surface Mount Technology PCB assembly. When it comes to the assembling printed circuit boards, SMT PCB assembly comes with the promise of reduced material handling costs, reduced board costs, and a unique manufacturing process. Additionally, one of the most important benefits, especially in the design stage section, is massive savings not only in weight but also in terms of noise reduction.
Better yet, SMT components are excellent when it comes to space management. SMT components occupy minimal space on the printed circuit board. SMT permits easily allow the creation of small PCB designs as it enables the placement of components closer together on the PCB. Unlike other forms of technology, the SMT process is swift to set for production. Moreover, PCBs made under the SMT process are compact and come with higher circuit speeds.
Disadvantages of SMT PCB Assembly
Even though surface mount technology comes with plenty of benefits, some disadvantages are associated with SMT PCB assembly technology. First, the small lead spaces may make repairs to be a little bit difficult. Secondly, SMT PCB assembly cannot assure that the solder connections will withstand components used during potting.
Thirdly, when it comes to SMT PCB assembly, components that bear high electrical loads or happen to generate a lot of heat can’t be mounted using SMT because the solder can melt under high temperature. Lastly, another disadvantage associated with surface mount technology printed circuit board assembly is that solder quickly weakens due to instances of mechanical stress.
It means that those components that directly interact with the user need attachment with through-hole mounting’s physical binding. SMT is also unsuitable for high-power, large, and high-voltage parts, not forgetting that component-level repair or manual prototype assembly is more tasking and requires expensive tools and skilled operators.
How does SMT Machine Work?
As mentioned earlier, electronics manufacturing by using surface mount technology means the assembly of electronic components with automated machines that place different parts on a printed circuit board.
In contrast to conventional or traditional through-hole technology processes, SMT components get placed directly on a printed circuit board’s surface instead of soldering to a wire lead. While an SMT machine may look somewhat complicated, it works very quickly. A surface mounts technology machine has a head and an arm that reaches all the tubes, reels, and every other part. It picks all the pieces up and then perfectly places them on the board.
The SMT machine’s head mainly uses a small vacuum head to pick up the components before precisely placing them on the board. Known as “pick” and “place” machines, these machines pick individual pieces from a reel magazine and put them on an empty printed circuit board. Of importance to note is that proper programming of such devices plays an essential role in quality and performance.
Important Technology in the SMT Process
As mentioned earlier, surface mount technology, short for SMT is a method used to attach electronic components on the surface of a printed circuit board instead of inserting parts or elements to holes as with traditional printed circuit board assembly.
Surface mount technology is unique for plenty of reasons. Still, the idea behind this technology was to reduce the costs of manufacturing printed circuit boards and make more efficient use of written circuit board space. With SMT’s introduction, it is now possible to build highly complex circuits into smaller assemblies with excellent repeatability based on high levels of automation.
SMT process consists of six essential steps that require the use of the latest technology.
- Solder paste stenciling followed by
- Pick and place then followed by
- Reflow soldering
- Inspection and quality control developed by
- Through-hole component insertion, and lastly,
- Final inspection and functional testing.
3D technology is one of the most critical technologies in the SMT process because it allows more accurate measurements and brings about a more stable inspection process on a PCB.
What can SMT Printing Technology can Bring to us?
People expect SMT printing technology to advance in the years to come. Even though we currently have better performing printed circuit boards, the future looks bright with SMT printing technology expected to improve.
With SMT printing technology, there will come novel manufacturing methods of printed circuit boards for better system integration, cost-saving, and lightweight boards. Additionally, SMT printing technology will bring about new assembly possibilities, shorter development times, and new assembly technologies.
With technology continuing to advance, there are expectations that surface mount printing technology will bring about better and high-performing printed circuit boards than the ones that currently run our electrical devices.